In early April 1613, Captain Samuel Argall goes on a trading mission to the Potowomac village. Unknown to him, this is the village where Princess Pocahontas, her husband Kocoum, and their child Little Kocoum, live. It has been at least four years since Princess Pocahontas has had any interaction with the English settlers. She is 15 years old, having been born September 17, 1597.
Chief Japazaw of the Potowomac village is Kocoum’s older brother. By chance, Captain Argall learns that Pocahontas lives in the village. He threatens Chief Japazaw and his wife and gets them to bring Pocahontas to lunch on his ship.
In 1611, Princess Pocahontas, who will become a very important person to John Rolfe and Jamestown, gives birth to a son known as Little Kocoum, named after his Potowomac Indian father, Kocoum, probably in the native village of Potowomac.
Pocahontas Statue at Jamestown, Virginia
In 1610, Princess Pocahontas, daughter of Wahunsenaca, Chief Powhatan, marries a warrior named Kocoum, the younger brother of Chief Japazaw of the Potowomac tribe on the Potomac River. Princess Pocahontas and Kocoum live in the Potowomac village.
Pocahontas was born on September 17, 1597, so she was 12 or 13 when she married Kocoum.
Title Page of John Smith's 1608 Book A True Relation ...
On June 2, 1608, John Smith writes a letter about Jamestown that is published in part, A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Have Happened in Virginia Since the First Planting of That Colony Which Is Now Resident in the South Part Thereof, Till the Last Return. Smith tells of his December 1607 capture by the Indians and being taken to Chief Powhatan. He makes no mention of being attacked with clubs or of the presence of Pocahontas during his captivity. There is also no mention of being threatened with clubs and saved by Pocahontas in his 1612 book about his Virginia adventure.
In April 1608, Smith captures seven Paspaheghans Indians as a result of a trade disagreement. The Paspaheghans are one of about 31 tribes in the Powhatan confederacy. Smith first mentions Pocahontas in his June 1608 letter as part of Powhatan’s response to his capture of the seven Paspaheghans in April 1608. Smith relates that in May 1608, Chief Powhatan sends a messenger Rawhunt, and his daughter, to secure the release of the Paspaheghans held by the colonists. He describes Pocahontas:
Powhatan … sent his daughter, a child of ten years old, which not only for feature, countenance, and proportion much exceedeth any of the rest of his people, but for wit and spirit the only nonpareil of his country. This he sent by his most trusty messenger, called Rawhunt …
May 1608 is Pocahontas’ first visit to the fort at Jamestown. She is still ten years old.
John Smith 1616
In December 1607, on his fourth trip up the Chickahominy River, John Smith goes past the Chickahominy territory and into joint hunting territory shared with the Powhatan and is captured by Opechancanough, werowance or chief of the Pamunkey tribe and brother to the paramount chief of the Powhatan Empire, Wahunsenaca, known as Chief Powhatan. Two of Smith’s men are killed.
Some weeks later, Smith is taken to Werowocomoco on the York River and received by the paramount Chief Powhatan. Pocahontas had just turned 10 years old on September 17, 1607, and was not present. Indian sources are adamant and historians agree, that John Smith was not about to be beaten to death by the Powhatan and was not saved by Pocahontas. As a child, even the child of the chief, she would not have been at the audience of the prisoner. A popular animated film with a disclaimer at the end of the credits (that very few people see) says it is not historically accurate but for entertainment, has given many people a quite different impression of the facts.
In Jamestown, between August 11 and August 14, 1609, the other seven ships of the Third Supply arrive. Captain Gabriel Archer on the Blessing reports that they were in high winds and seas for about 44 hours, less than half of the more than 96 hours that the Sea Venture endured. The Sea Venture doesn’t arrive and is thought lost.
The other seven ships of the Third Supply add about 400 settlers to Jamestown.
John Rolfe knew there was risk involved in his first ocean crossing and also in the colony of Virginia from disease and Indian attack. He accepted and embraced that risk and took his wife along. He probably didn’t think much about the risk of a tempest, a storm yes, but a tempest, no. I imagine shipwreck was far from an expected risk. And castaway on a deserted island for nearly 10 months, he probably didn’t imagine. Yet John Rolfe accepted all the risks, both expected and unexpected, and continued on after disaster.
Eventually, William Strachey’s account of the tempest, castaways on a deserted island, and St. Elmo’s fire will be circulated around London and inspire The Tempest by William Shakespeare.
At least the storm has abated and John Rolfe and all the others have survived due to courageous leadership and hard work against all odds. But now they are shipwrecked and castaway on an uninhabited, deserted island, the Devil’s Isles, that all mariners fear in the Bermuda Triangle.
Ironically, the day they become castaways, July 28, 1609, goes down in history as the date of the first settlement of Bermuda. But for the castaways, it’s still the Devil’s Isles.
The Sea Venture Shipwrecked
The Sea Venture tries to get through the reef around the Devil’s Isles to safe anchorage, but fails. One-half mile off shore, the Sea Venture hits the reef, hard. Fortunately in unfortunate circumstances, she becomes wedged between two large rocks on the reef and will not budge. Luckily, the Sea Venture is upright and held fast in place, and not banging or breaking apart against the rocks. This allows use of the longboats to get all 153 people, including John Rolfe and Sarah Rolfe, safely ashore, and the ship’s dog and their pigs too. Since the ship is still sitting there, they go back for all the remaining provisions which haven’t been thrown overboard, then the rigging, then all the iron used to build the ship, then the masts, and finally some planking.
As the Sea Venture approaches the shore of the Devil’s Isles, the boatswain takes soundings, measurements of the depth of the sea by dropping a weighted rope over the side that is knotted every six feet. Each knot is a fathom, and the boatswain counts the knots as he lets out the line. First it is thirteen fathoms, then seven fathoms, then four fathoms. Finally everyone knows why the islands are uninhabited and feared, as no ship has ever landed or anchored safely in these waters because of a massive reef encircling the islands. There are the remains of many ships wrecked on the reef.
Around noon on Friday, July 28, 1609, Admiral Sir George Somers who is on watch and has been for three days and three nights cries “Land.” Admiral Somers and Captain Newport know where they were, and it is not good. They have been blown by the tempest near an area we now call the Bermuda Triangle and are approaching the dangerous and dreaded islands they know as the Devil’s Isles.
These islands are uninhabited and more feared and avoided by sea travelers than any other place in the world. The Devil’s Isles are legendary in that it is known that all who go there have terrible experiences. Besides shipwreck, there are tempests, thunders, and fearful things seen and heard.
Silvester Jourdain relates that those who have a private stock of alcoholic beverages on board the Sea Venture fetch it and toast their friends and take leave of them until they meet again in the next world.
Another passenger, Silvester Jourdain describes the tempest which hit the Sea Venture thus:
“… we were taken with a most sharp and cruel storm …which did not only separate us from the residue of our fleet … but with the violent working of the seas our ship became so shaken, torn, and leaked that she received so much water as covered two tier of hogsheads above the ballast; that our men stood up to the middles with buckets … and kettles to bail out the water and continually pumped for three days and three nights together without any intermission; and yet the water seemed rather to increase than to diminish. Insomuch that all our men, being utterly spent … were even resolved, without any hope of their lives … to have committed themselves to the mercy of the sea … seeing no help nor hope … that [they] would escape … present sinking.”
They throw overboard much luggage, beer, oil, cider, wine, vinegar, and all the cannon on the starboard side of the Sea Venture. The men are very tired, having worked from Tuesday until Friday morning without sleep or food. And at Friday noon there is now ten feet of water above the ballast, twice the depth on Tuesday. William Strachey says there is a “general determination” to shut the hatches, commend their souls to God, and commit the ship to the mercy of the seas.
St. Elmo's Fire
On Thursday night, July 27, 1609, the fourth night of the tempest on the Sea Venture, Admiral Sir George Somers is on watch. He sees “a little round light like a faint star, trembling and streaming along with a sparkling blaze half the height upon the mainmast, and shooting sometimes from shroud to shroud ….”
For half the night it keeps up, “running sometimes along the main yard to the very end, and then returning…” Admiral Somers calls many people to observe with him what is called St. Elmo’s fire. They take it as a good omen. In the morning, Friday morning, it disappears.
On Tuesday morning, July 25, 1609, Governor Gates divides all the crew and passengers, including gentlemen and except for the women, totaling 140, into three groups in the front, middle, and rear of the ship. John Rolfe, along with the others, is to either bail with buckets or operate the pumps in shifts of one hour of work alternating with one hour of rest. John Rolfe and the others do this for the next 72 hours as the Sea Venture rolls and pitches. This is an extraordinary measure, as gentlemen not only aren’t used to but don’t do manual labor. So the Governor’s requirement that all men participate equally was a desperate move.
William Strachey continues: “The men might be seen to labor … for life, and the better sort, even our governor and admiral themselves, not refusing their turn….” They work “with tired bodies and wasted spirits” for three days and nights. Strachey continues: “During all this time, the heavens looked so black upon us that it was not possible” to see a star at night or a sunbeam by day.
The Sea Venture, with John Rolfe on board, loses contact with all the other ships of the fleet in the first day. They cut loose the ketch on the fear that the ketch will swamp and pull both ships under, and the ketch and those aboard are never heard from again.
The other six ships emerge from the storm after 48 hours. Eventually all six of the other ships and the Virginia, which had turned back and started again after repairs, all reach Jamestown in good time. Only the Sea Venture is blown along with the storm and endures much, much more.
A sailing ship like the Sea Venture is built by laying planks next to and overlapping each other. The spaces or joints between them are caulked or filled with a tar and fiber material called oakum. William Strachey relates that they have five feet of water above the ballast and are in danger of sinking. Crewmen with candles search the hold for leaks and can’t find any holes, just the leaking joints.
William Strachey continues with his description of the tempest which struck the Sea Venture:
“[A] dreadful storm and hideous began to blow from out [of] the northeast, which swelling and roaring, as it were, by fits, some hours with more violence than others, at length did beat all light from heaven, which like an hell of darkness turned black upon us … the terrible cries and murmurs of the winds … such unmerciful tempest … that it worketh upon the whole … body, and most loathsomely affecteth all the powers thereof.
“For four and twenty hours the storm in a restless tumult had blown so exceedingly as we could not apprehend in our imaginations any possibility of greater violence. Yet did we still find it not only more terrible but more constant, fury added to fury, and one storm urging a second more outrageous than the former ….
“It could not be said to rain. The waters like whole rivers did flood in the air…. Winds and seas were as mad as fury and rage could make them. For mine own part, I had been in some storms before … upon the coast of Barbary and Algier … and … in the Adriatic Gulf…. Yet all that I had ever suffered gathered together might not hold comparison with this. There was not a moment in which the sudden splitting or instant oversetting of the ship was not expected.
“How be it this was not all. It pleased God to bring a greater affliction yet upon us, for in the beginning of the storm we had received … a mighty leak, and the ship in every joint almost having spewed out her oakum before we were aware.”